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L. O. HOWARD. Inlomologisl.nd Chief of Bur«u. 




/ l r of Deciduous Fruil I 'inns. 

5U0O1 Cir li'^p 12 1 

\\ will N.. i . INME.VI l-KI NTINc 1912 


L. O. Howard, Entomologist and chief of Bureau. 

C. L. Mari.att, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief. 

R. S. Clifton, Executive Assistant. 

W. F. Tastet, Chief Clerk. 

F. H. Chittenden, in charge of truck crop and stored product insi ct in vestigatiomt. 

A. D. Hopkins, in charge of forest insect investigations. 

W. D. Httnteb, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations. 

F. M. Websteb, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations. 

A. L. Qttaintance, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations. 

E. F. Phillips, in charge of bee culture. 

D. M. Rogers, in charge of preventing spread of moths, field work. 

Holla I'. Currie, in charge of editorial work. 

Mabel Colcord, in charge of library. 

Deciduous Fruit Insect Investigations. 

A. L. Quaintance, in charge. 

Feed Johnson, S. W. Fosteb, I'. R. Jones. F. E. Brooks. A. G. Hammab, E. W. 

Scott. K. L. Nougabet, It. A. Cushman, L. L. Scott. J. I!. Gill, A. C. Baker, 

W. M. Davidson. E. B. Bi.akkslki . W. B. Wood. E. II. Sieoler, F. L. Siman- 

ton, entomological assistants. 
J. F. ZlMMEB, W. S. Addott. W. II. Sill, entomological assistants, employed in 

enforcement of insecticide act, 1010. 

Circular No. 160. 

Imued I i. i.. I., r >, l'jli. 

United States Department of Agriculture, 

L. O. HOWARD. Entomologist ami Chief of Bureau. 


(Ceratitii oapitata Wiedemann.) '\ 

By A. I.. Qtj mn i \.n< i . 
In Charge of Deciduous Fruit Insect Investigations, 

i \ raoDTJcnoN. 

The recent establishment in Hawaii of the Mediterranean fruit- 
fly (fig. 1) and the quarantine restrictions against Hawaiian fruil 

imposed by the State of California have aroused considerable inter- 

Fi.i i The Mediterranean fruit fly {CentUtU eopitala) : a, Adult By; 6. head of snme 
from front: t, ipatnla-llke linir fn<m f:ici> of male; '/. antenna; <-. larra; f, an 
ment of sumo : ;/, head of aanw. ■ .ind r, enlarged ; b, g, f, greatly enlarged : r, </, still 
more greatly enlarged. (From Howard.) 

est in thi> very destructive insect, and there have been frequent re- 
quests for information concerning it. To meet thi> demand for 

information the present paper has been prepared and largely com- 



piled from the writings of entomologists in countries where the 
insect exists, particularly the writings of Froggatt, French, and 
Fuller in Australia, and Lounsbury and Mally in Cape Colony, 
South Africa. 

There can be no question that the Mediterranean fruit-fly is a most 
serious drawback to the successful cultivation of fruit in the coun- 
tries where it is established. Indeed, the cultivation of fruits is 
scarcely possible in the worst infested regions. The fruit-growing 
industry of Bermuda was practically destroyed many years ago by 
the introduction of the insect into that island. Its introduction into 
the United States in all probability would be calamitous to the 
orchard interests of our more southern States and of California, in 
which regions it would find conditions very similar to those in coun- 
tries where it now exists in most destructive numbers. 

This species belongs to a group of insects — the family Trypetidae 
of the oilier Diptera, or flies — for which no very successful means 
of control have been found. Despite a large amount of experimenta- 
tion in the control of this as well as other related species, including 
our own apple maggot or railroad worm (Ehagoletis pomoneMo 
Walsh), little has been developed that is of value in lessening their 
injury, except the' collection and destruction of fallen infested fruit 
and the more recent use in South Africa of a poisoned bait sprayed 
over the trees for the destruction of the adult flies. 

In view of the very serious character of the pest and the great 
difficulty in its control, it is most urgent that all possible pains 
should be taken to prevent its introduction into this country. The 
energetic measures taken by the Hawaiian and California authorities 
are much to be commended. 


The name "Mediterranean fruit-fly" was first given to this insect 
by Froggatt, who believed that the insect had probably been intro- 
duced into Australia from the region of the Mediterranean. It has, 
however, been given numerous other common names, as the peach fly. 
peach maggot, etc. The species has been twice redescribed since firs! 
characterized by Wiedmann in 18'2I, and the synonymy stands as 
follows : 

1S24. Tephritis capitata Wiedemann, Analects Entomologies, p. 55. 
1829. Geratitis citriperda Macleay, Zoological Journal, vol. 4. p. 475. 
1842. Ceratitis hispafyica de Breme, Annales de la Soci§t€ Entomologique <U> 
France, vol. 11, p. 183. 

Some authors also consider Cer otitis cattoirei Guerin as identical 
with or a mere variety of capitata. 

The species has been variously referred by authors to the genera 
Tephritis, Trypeta, Ceratitis, Petalophora, Halterophora. etc., but 
Ceratitis appears to be the latest reference. 

Till. Ml hi II BRAN] W III I i I IV. A 

ii hii IR1 \\i> DI81 1:11.1 PION. 

The Mediterranean fruil il\ was originally described by Wiede- 
mann under the Dame Trypeta capitatoy from specimens Baid to have 
come from the Bast Indie.-. 

Latreille in Cuvier's Regne Animal, published in L817, under die 
capl ion " Les Tephrites " states, on the authority of Cattoire, thai the 
roIi>n i~t - «it" the I -If iif Prance (Mauritius) were scarcely able to 
obtain Bound citrus fruits, perfect at maturity, on account of the 
extreme abundance of a dipterous insect which deposited eggs in 
them. This early reference might !><• considered as referring to the 
Mediterranean fruit-fly. A specimen, presumably this same insect, 
was sent by Cattoire to Macleay, who so regarded it, but it was later 
given specific rank by Guerin under the name Ceratitis cattoirei. 

Although the insect was described by Wiedemann, it was first 
brought prominently into notice by .M;ule;iy in L829, in an article 
published in the Zoological Journal (vol. I. p. 17.">) entitled " Notice 
of Ceratitis citriperda, an insect very destructive to orange." 
Macleay's article, accompanied by a colored plate, was based on 
specimens obtained from the Azores. Shipments of oranges from 
these islands were reaching the London market in had condition and. 
as stated by Macleay. of the quantity annually received, from 90,000 
to 100,000 chests, about one-third were thus affected. Not infre- 
quently whole cargoes were in such a state of decay a- not to bring 
the value of the freight. This breaking down of the fruit en route. 
while possibly due in part to other causes, was attributed by Macleay 
to the ravages of this insect. Macleay also made note of its occur- 
rence on the island of St. Michael, where it was especially trouble- 
some during March. April, and May. In a footnote to his article he 
adds that the perfect fly was observed by him on a heap of oranges 
in the market place of Funchal, island of Madeira, and also at St. 
JagO, Cape Verde Islands, and calls attention to a report that a 
maggot infests oranges in the Wesl Indie-. 

Wiedemann (Aussereurop. Zweifliig. Lnsekten, p. 196) in 1830 
again describes the insect under the name Trypeta capitata, citing his 
earlier description 1 Analecta Entomologica, p. •''•'•. Nr. 124) , and adds : 
"A queer little animal which was placed in the Royal Museum with 
the name Mtuca capitata^ with the information that it had been cap- 
tured by Daldorfon the Indian Ocean." The type is Said to 1)0 ill the 

Royal Museum at Copenhagen. 

F. de Breme, in the Annales de la Societe Entomologique de 
France for 1842, redescribes the Mediterranean fruit-fly under the 
name id" Ceratitis hispanica, from specimens found in oranges in the 
environ- of Malaga, Spain. He point- out supposed differences be- 
tween hi.- species and that id' Macleay. 


In the Gardeners' Chronicle for September, 1848, Westwood, under 
the caption "The orange fly," refers to Macleay's article and resords 
receiving wormy oranges from a Botolph Lane merchant, from which 
material he drew up a description of the maggot and pupa. The 
specimens were from St. Michael Island, and Westwood remarks 
that the insect is also native of "St. Jago and the Cape Verde 
Islands" and adds that he has long possessed specimens of this fly 
taken " on the wing in Thames Street." 

At the meeting of the Societe Entomologique de France, January 
26, 1859, Villeneuve exhibited an orange received by him from 
Algeria and infested with a dipterous maggot. From this fruit the 
adult fly was reared and was recognized by him as Ceratitis hispanica, 
as later reported to the society at its session of March 23, 1859. 

As stated by Prof. C. Rondani (Bull. Ent. Soc. Ital., p. 29, 1870) 
the species is rare in Spain, and he adds that it is found only in 
southern Italy. 

In 1871, under the title "Dommages causes par la Ceratitis his- 
panica,'''' Laboulbene ( Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 
p. 439) describes the injuries caused by the fruit-fly to oranges in 
Algeria and presents a detailed description of the species prepared 
by J. Bigot. He quotes notes furnished him by Boisduval tp the 
effect that at Blidah and in all Algeria the orange crop was com- 
pletely destroyed by the insect. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for 1884 (p. 34) Osten- 
Sacken lists the Mediterranean fruit-fly under the name of Ceratiti? 
capitata, referring to its occurrence in the Madeira Islands, and adds 
that it attacks oranges wherever they grow. He also states that 
C. citriperda Macleay and C. hispanica de Breme are mere synonyms, 
or species based on individual varieties. 

Roder, in the Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift for 1885 (p. 
132), in an article " Ueber die Dipteren Gattung. Ceratitis Macleay." 
gives the synonymy of Ceratitis capitata, and also its distribution as 
follows: Southern Spain, southern Italy, Algeria. Tunis. Madeira, 
Mauritius, Indian Ocean, Kongo, Cape Coast, Delagoa Bay. 

Penzig, in the Annali de Agricultura for 1887, presents an ex- 
tended account of the diseases and insect enemies of the orange and 
treats at length of the dipterous pests of the fruit, referring to three 
species of Ceratitis under the generic name Halterophora. The 
species considered, namely, capitata, cattoirei, and hispanica, are by 
him considered identical. Extended life-history notes are given and 
the orange is stated to be the principal fruit infested, but lemons 
and other cultivated citrus fruits are attacked, as well as peaches, 
figs, azaroles, etc. The species is thought to be limited to the country 
around the Mediterranean and its injuries in Algeria are noted. In 
Sicily oranges were first attacked and later peaches. In Liguria it 

I ill. Mi :i: INEAN FRUIT-FLY. D 

was noted .1- injurious to peaches in l N>- _', but little, if al all, attack- 
ing < • i i in-- fruits. 

\ stated by Girard, the Mediterranean fruit fly became estab 
[ished in the environs of Paris, infesting apricots al Courbevoie. 
In a further note «>n the Bubjecl (Compt. Rend., 20, L906) M. 
Girard reports thai the insect has insidiously increased ii- ravages, 
and ;it thai time peaches were seriously affected in many localities 
around Paris. According i" Prof. Paul Marchal, however, the pesl 
was no1 troublesome tin- year following (1907), for which reason it 
i- thought the insecl « 1 i < 1 nol become property established. 

An account of this species, under the name of the Bermuda peach 
maggot, is given by Riley and Howard in Insecl Life (vol. '■'•. p. 5), 
which appeared in 1890. The insecl was reared at the insectary in 
Washington from peaches received from Claud \V. McCallan, of St. 
Georges, Bermuda. In further correspondence with Mr. McCallan 
it was learned that peaches had been more or less infested for about 
■_'.'> years and their culture had practically to be abandoned. It is 
stated that oranges are little attacked on the island, but that the mag- 
gots infest the Surinam cherry (Eugenia michelii), half of the crop 
being ruined annually. The loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) and the 
Malta plum arc also subject to infestation, as well as the bitter Seville 
orange. Mr. McCallan has expressed the opinion that the insect 
made its appearance in the island in a cargo of fruit from the 
Mediterranean region, winch, while intended for the American mar- 
ket, was landed at the island through stress of had weather. 

Miss Ormerod, in her publication, "Injurious Farm and Fruit 
Insects of South Africa." which appeared in l^ s '.». gives an account 
of the injuries done by the fruit-fly in Cape Colony. This is ap- 
parently the firsl reference to the occurrence of the pesl in that 
region, although, as noted by Mally, it was introduced many years 
before this date. 

Apparently Mr. Claude Fuller was first to record the occurrence 
in Australia of ( < nit it is • apitata, the record appearing in the Journal 
of the Bureau of Agriculture of West Australia for I'dnuary. l^'.'T. 
In the March number of the same journal Mr. Fuller gives informa- 
tion concerning the life history of the insect, together with a good 
plate. At about the same time Mr. II. Tryon received specimens 
from West Australia, and the year following it was reared by Mr. 
C. French from peaches imported into Victoria from Sydney. The 
fly was discovered a few days later by Mr. W. YV. Froggatl in rearing 
jars containing fruit supposed to have been infested with the Queens- 
land fruit-fly. It is thought to have made it- way into Australia in 
oranges from Italy, a considerable quantity of which at that time 
was being imported. 


Though the fruit-fly was also common at about that period in 
South African oranges, the above facts are considered good evidence 
by Froggatt that it was introduced into Australia from European 
countries, and hence the popular name " Mediterranean fruit-fly," by 
which the species was designated by him. Concerning its distribu- 
tion in Australia Froggatt states: 

This fly has spread all through the citrous orchards of New South Wales, to 
a greater or less extent, but until a few years ago was unknown in the southern 
parts of this State and the adjoining State of Victoria. At the present time, 
however, it is found in orchards at Albury, N. S. W., and in quite a number of 
Victoria orchards, where it has become more or less established. 

The insect is also present in Queensland, as specimens have been 
obtained from Brisbane. In \Vest Australia, in the vicinity of Perth 
and all through the citrus orchards, it is regarded as a great pest to 
fruit growing, as in the climate of Xew South "Wales. 

Although the species has probably several times been introduced 
into Tasmania, it has apparently not yet gained a foothold there. 
In New Zealand the fly has also been frequently introduced, and at 
one time was established to a certain extent in the vicinity of Napier. 
Its future development in the island, however, was considered prob- 
lematical by some in view of the character of the climate. As pointed 
out by Mr. T. W. Kirk, however, there appears to be no reason why 
the insect w T ould not be equally at home in Xew Zealand as in 

The time of its introduction into South Africa is not definitely 
known. It is thought to have been brought in with fruit from 
Madeira. Writing in 1904, C. W. Mally states that it is not difficult 
to find men who are familiar with the depredations of this insect in 
the coastal belt of the colony 30 years ago. It is now generally 
present in the fruit-growing regions of Cape Colony and is recorded 
from Natal. According to Mr. C W. Howard it is also present in 
the Transvaal, and in Uganda, as recorded by Gowdcy : in northern 
Egypt (Cairo), as stated by Froggatt; and at Kafrez-Zaivat, also 
in Egypt, on the authority of Cartwright. Mr. Geo. Compere, who 
has traveled in many parts of the world in connection with his search 
for parasitic and predatory enemies of destructive insects, states that 
the Mediterranean fruit-fly is present in Asiatic Turkey, St. Helena 
Island, at Valencia (Eastern Spain), and in Bahia and Sao Paulo, in 
Eastern Brazil. 

This fruit-fly was discovered in Hawaii about the middle of the 
year 1010. and the fact of its establishment in the island of Oahu 
was announced to the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and 
Forestry by the entomologist. Mr. E. M. Ehrhorn. at its meeting on 
October 5 of that year. It was suggested by Mr. Ehrhorn. and the 
suggestion was promptly carried out, that notice be given to the Cali- 

I'll I. \li Mil 1:1: \ \ I \ N FRUIT-FLY. < 

fornia State Horticultural Commission of the establishment of the 
pes! in the island. General observations indicate that the insecl 
had been present in the island Borne two or three years previous i" its 
ilisco) i\ li was first reared from oranges taken in Honolulu. The 
Territorial Board of Agriculture and Forestry promulgated a regula 
lion (rule 7), which was signed by the governor November 21, L910, 
prohibiting the shipment of fruits subject to infestation i" other 
islands of the territory. 

The California Horticultural Commission, upon notification <>f the 
occurrence in Hawaii of the Mediterranean fruit fly, promptly 
adopted rigid inspection of fruits and vegetables received ;it San 
Francisco. As a result infested fruits were frequently found, and 
June 24, 1911, a quarantine order against Hawaii was issued barring 
'• * * the importation of all fruits, vegetables, berries, seed pods, 
etc., either cultivated in the orchards or gardens or growing wild 
in the Hawaiian Islands, \\ i 1 1 1 the exception thai pineapples, 
bananas, and all root crops the edible portion- of which during 
growth have always been beneath the surface of the soil -hall be ad- 
mitted at the port- of the State of California after having been 
duly inspected: Provided, Thai any or all of these exempted fruits 
or vegetables, if at any time hereafter shall be found to contain upon 
inspection the egg, larva?, or pupa? of the fruit-fly (Ceratitis capi- 
tntn), they shall be immediately included in the lisl of quarantined 
fruits and vegetable-." ' 

During the summer of L911 Mr. E. K. Carnes visited Hawaii and 
spont some time in a thorough investigation of fruit-fly conditions 
and gave a preliminary report of his investigation in the monthly 
bulletin of the State Commission of Horticulture of California for 
December, 101 1. pages &-13. The substance of this report later 
appeared in the Proceedings of the Fortieth Fruit Growers' Con- 
vention of the State of California, pages 71 78. In December, 1911, 
Commissioner A. J. Cook dispatched to the island as a porl inspector 
to assist in preventing embarkation of infested fruit Mr. II. A. 
Weinland, working in conjunction with Mr. Ehrhorn, superintendent 
of entomology, and Mr. W. M. Giffard, director of the fruit-fly con- 
trol. The plan of work adopted by the Hawaiian authorities has 
been in the main thai of eradication. The difficulties of the situation 
arc. however, enormous by reason of the irregular nature of the 
country and the large li-t of fruits upon which the insecl may sub- 
This situation is well pointed out by Carnes in his report in the 
Proceedings of the Fortieth Fruit Growers 1 Convention of the State 
of California, page 74, as follow-: 

Prom the best authentic Information available, it appears thai the Mediter- 
ranean fruit-fly lias been on the Island <'f Oabu, opon which the city "f Honolulu 

i Horticnltnrnl - California, 1912, p. 28 

50801 Clr 160 12 — 2 


is located, for at least two years ami probably longer: It is now firmly estab- 
lished in practically all sections of this island and it has also been taken mi the 
adjacent island of Kauai, known as the Garden Island. I did not find it on 
the Island of Maui, but, owing to the limited time assigned to my investiga- 
tion, to cover the entire territory was impossible; moreover, the realization came 
to me that our real problem was the Island of Oahu. * * * 

The fly has spread from the lower cultivated areas ami is now infesting the 
wild guavas on the sides of the mountain, in the gulches, on the plains, and in 
the cultivated portions of the valleys. In addition to the wild guavas. which are 
almost continually in fruit, many other wild fruits that are hosts grow in 
abundance; also, large patches of the prickly-pear cactus are to he found all 
over the mountains. In other countries this fruit carries the flies over winter, 
and will undoubtedly prove a host fruit in the absence of other hosts. 

The worst infested portion of the Island of Oahu is the resident section of 
the city of Honolulu, and it is from this plague spot that California would be 
most likely to become infested. This is the section visited by all tourists 
stopping at Honolulu, and it is from this district that they procure the tropical 
fruit which finds its way to the port of San Francisco. 

The very dangerous character of the pest led Congress to make an 
emergency appropriation for an investigation of the insect in the 
United State-, its territories and possessions, and this work will be 
promptly taken tip by the Bureau of Entomology. 1 

The published records indicate that the Mediterranean fruit-fly is 
widely distributed in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. 
It is recorded from the following countries : 

Algeria. Asiatic Turkey, the Azores. Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. Sao 
Paulo). Bermuda. Cape Verde Islands. East Indies. Egypt (Cairo, 
Kafrez-Zaiyat). France. Madeira Islands. Malta. Mauritius. Xatal, 
Xew South Wales. Xew Zealand. Queensland. St. Helena Island, 
Sicily. Spain (Malaga. Valencia. Barcelona). South Africa, Tas- 
mania. Transvaal. Uganda. Victoria, and West Australia. 

Considering the insect in connection with its known distribution 
and destructiveness, it appears fairly certain that it would not be 
able to maintain itself in regions where the temperature during 
winter falls much below the freezing point. The failure of the in- 
sect to extend its range northward from the Mediterranean region 
seems to warrant this conclusion. There is. however, much territory 
in the United States where the pest would doubtless thrive, as in our 
more southern States and in California. 


The very destructive character of the Mediterranean fruit-fly has 
been evident since the insect first came prominently into notice in 
1829. Its injuries to citrus fruits, especially the orange, were early 
complained of. and as the insect has spread the list of fruits attacked 

1 August l'o. 1912, an act was passed by Congress ami approved by the President which 
enables the Secretary of Agriculture to establish and maintain quarantine againsl danger- 
ously injurious insect pests and plant diseases. The necessary steps are'lieins taken for 
the purpose of promulgating a quarantine to prevent the introduction of the Mediter- 
ranean fruit-fly. 

Till. Ml M 1 1 RRANEAN I 1:1 I I 1 LI , V 

has material]} increased. As already noted, it- injuries u> oranges 
in the Mediterranean region, as well as in the Madeira Islands, the 
Azores, etc., have largely interfered with the successful culture of 
these crops. Upon it- introduction into South Africa it soon gained 
;i foothold, and became :i pest of first-class importance, and it- be- 
havior since it- establishment in Australia has been even more dis- 
astrous to the fruit growers. Concerning its injuries in Cape Colony 
Mr. Clin-. I'. Lounsbury, Government entomologist, writing in L907, 
says : 

Prom the horticultural standpoint, the peach maggot (Oerotltla capitata) 

ranks Drat In Importance ai ig Injurtoua Insecta of the paal season. Tins 

ix-st is always one which attracts much attention, and its ravages this year 
bave been greater than usual, it survives the winter as a mature Insect and 
becomes more and more numerous as the season advances, there being n succes- 
sion of broods December apricots were much Infested this year, and in moat 
parts Hi' the Western Provinces late peaches and nectarines were almost all 
maggot ly. Other deciduous fruits suffered to a lesser extent At the date of 
writing, Infested guavas are not uncommon, and numerous flies ma; be found in 
moat orange groves ; only a small percentage of the fruit of the orange, however, 
is attacked in this vicinity. In the eastern part- of the colony tin- ravages of 
the pest are more severe Oranges are there inure subject to it. and In Borne 
groves most of the fruit is said to be spoiled. Late peaches are said to lie 
almost unobtainable, and I have myself seen nearly half the loquats on a large 
tree In full bearing Infested by this pernicious pest at Grahamstown. Loquats, 
however, do not seem to be generally attacked, and I have heard of no occurrence 
of this kind in the western fruit-growing sections of the colony The destruc- 
tion of Infested fallen fruit is practised by son f the most enterprising fruit 

growers The utility of tins course is questioned by Borne who have adopted it. 
but from personal observation I am inclined to believe that the trouble lies in 
lack of thoroughness; too often a tree In Borne odd corner is not \isited or some 
worthless fruit is allowed to remain on the trees after the crop has been 


In the Journal of Agriculture. May. ls'r". Mr. C. French, then 
Government entomologist of Victoria, state-: 

This terrible BCOUrge of the fruit grower i- becoming but too familiar ill 
Victoria, larva 1 having been found in peaches, pears, quinces, apricots, plums. 

nectarines, guavas, oranges, lemons apples, citrons, loquats, mangoes pump- 
kins bananas tomatoes pineapples and persimmons; so that it will easily be 
that hardly any fruit can be said to be exempt from its attacks and ,.f 
all the fruit grower's enemies, the fruit-fly is undoubtedly the wort 

In Bulletin 22 of the New Zealand Department of Agriculture 
(1909), Mr. T. W. Kirk, writing of the Mediterranean fruit-flv. 
state- : 

We have now had to burn consignments of the following fruits because they 

were infested with this dreaded maggot : Tea 'lies, apricot-, nectarines cherries, 
peara, apples, mangoes, shaddocks, mammee-epples, pineapples, tomatoes, loquats, 
persimmons plums, mandarins, oranges bananas maupl fruit, grenadiilas Bgs. 

Should this pest ever becon stablished here it will mean the ruin of the 

stone-fruit industry of the North. It will be seen that practically all varieties 
of fruit are attacked, and the measures taken to keep this fly out of Sew 
Zealand can not be too aevere. 


Mr. C. W. Mallv. entomologist for the Eastern Province, Cape 
of Good Hope, South Africa, in the Agricultural Journal, December, 
1904. .state- 
It is difficult to say from whence the fruit fly came. It was most likely 
brought to the Cape in fruit from Madeira. How long ago no one can tell! 
It is not diiiiciilt to find men who were familiar with the depredations of this 
insect in the coastal belt of the Colony thirty years ago. Until recently the 
Mediterranean regions were looked upon as the original home of this species, 
mainly because it had been known to he injurious there for such a long time. 
If the presence of natural enemies is a safe guide. Mr. Geo. Compere's discov- 
ery, that this )K'st is kept under almost complete control in Brazil through 
the agency of natural enemies, would point to that country as the original 
home. Be that as it may, we are all well aware that the fly has become a 
constant factor in fruit-growing in Cape Colony. How to prevent its injuries 
is the demand that has necessitated investigation with a view to establishing 
the practicability of control measures. The first step is to determine the 

Mr. Geo. Compere, of the California Horticultural Commission, 
writing of fruit-flies in the Proceedings of the Thirty-eighth Fruit 
Growers' Convention, remarks: 

The next species that I wish to call your attention to is Ceratitis capitata, 
Wied.. or, commonly called, the Mediterranean fruit fly. With this si>eeies I 
have had more experience than with any of the other forms, and I can say that 
it is without question the most destructive fruit pest on record in the world 
to-day. Not that it is any more destructive to any particular variety of fruit 
than many of the other species of this group of flies, hut it is so. from the 
extremely wide range of food fruits. While most of the species confine them- 
selves to one or a few varieties of fruits, this one will attack every known fruit 
with the exception of the banana, pineapple, and olive. It flourishes in the 
bitterest of limes and hitter orange the same as it does in the most delicious 
peach, pear, or apple. 

Writing of the fruit-fly in Hawaii, Mr. E. K. Carnes, as a result 
of a visit to the islands under the auspices of the California State 
Commission of Horticulture, states: 

On Oahu the following fruits and vegetables have been attacked: All species 
of citrus fruit, peaches, figs, grapes, rose apple, star apple, mangoes, white 
lemon guavas. wild guavas, alligator pears (bruised and fallen), strawberry 
guavas, papaya, sapota, Carissa arduina i South African), also string beans and 

In addition to this list the known host fruits include: Eggplant, coffee, plums, 
cherries, persimmons, grenadillas, maupi fruit, apricots, pears, nectarines, 
loquats. apples, shaddocks, mandarins, niammoe-apples. 

So tar the banana and pineapple appear to be immune from attack, but close 
inspection should be maintained for future development. 

To this list for Hawaii should be added the additional fruits more 
recently found to be infested, as slated by Mr. W. M. Giffard (Ha- 
waiian Forester and Agriculturist. April. 1912). namely: Kumquat 
(Citrus japoiiira), Murraya exotica, and E\igema sp. Mr. Giffard 
adds : 

nir. Ml l'in i:i:wi\N I 1:11 i tLY. 11 

I would further i < ■ i ■> • 1 1 that coffee berries, varieties ol luquuts, 

varieties of Kugeuln, and Kunianl h Is appear to be among the worsl Infested 

fruits bo i.i r examined. 

The above records indicate the omnivorous character of the pest 
and leave no doubt that when once introduced into a locality where 
proper temperature conditions exist it will l>e able to maintain itself 
without difficulty. It- life history in Bermuda, as stated by T. I. 
Harris, director of the public gardens, in the Bermuda Coloni i for 
the l-tli of August, 1907, may be quoted in tlii- connection. It will 
be recalled that the pest was introduced into Bermuda manv years 

Though the great variety of fruiting trees growing here Is Insufficient to 
tarnish propagating media for flies throughout the whole year, each successive 
generation making use of a different kind of fruit, without doubt the Surinam 
cherry [Eugenia michelU) has been the most potent factor In perpetuating the 
pest There are two main crops <>t' fruit, one In the Bpring and another In the 
full, but Btragglers between each cause the tw<> crops t" overlap. 

The loQuats {Eriobotrya japonica), ripening in February and March, are 
used by the fruit flies of the year, from the puparia that have lived dormant In 
iii.' ground during the two coldest months, ;in<i the larva? hatched from the eggs 
<>r these Mies begin n> pupate before the loquats are all over. In some Instances 
this year, where the fruit bad been pecked bj birds and bad shrivelled on the 
trees, complete pupee wen' found within the fruit At the end of April and 
during May, the peach, cherry, oranges (both sweet and sour), lemons and limes, 
Barbados gooseberry, and capsicums bring forth another crop of maggots that, 
after pupation, are just in time for the Bapodlllas In June and July. Follov 
these are the mangoes, coffee, sweet peppers, cherries again, avocado pears, 
gdaras, sugar apples, cherimoyas, quinces, cocoa-plum, grenadUlas, and star 
apples, which Berve as propagating media until the final resting brood goes i" 
earth during i December. 

While the general feeding habits of the fruit-fly render a complete 
list of fruits attacked of secondary importance, yet it is desirable 
to know from what fruit it has actually been reared, or which have 
been noted as infested. 

The evidence of infestation in the case of bananas is not as con- 
clusive as is desirable, especially as t<> whether the fruit in a green 
condition as gathered for shipment is infested. As recorded by 
French (Journ. Agr., 1907, p. 302) the larvse of this fly were found 
in bananas imported from Queensland, on August 11. L906, and the 
perfect insect reared. The same author, in his Hand Book of the 
structive [nsects of Victoria i\<>1. l. p. :'..'>). says: 

it has been frequently Btated In Queensland and New South Wales, that the 
tli<-s win not attack green fruit. This is a mistake, as l nave on many occasions 
proved eggs t>> have been deposited In green bananas before shipment as no 
balf-ripe bananas are ever shipped from Queensland to Melbourne. 

On the other hand, the Hawaiian entomologists have not found the 
insect attacking bananas, and believe that in the green condition in 
which it is gathered the fruit is not subject to attack. Ripe bananas 
arc. however, unquestionably infested. 



Both Mr. French and Mr. Kirk record finding larva' of the Med- 
iterranean fruit-fly in pineapples. 

A list is given below of all fruits recorded in literature, so far as 
we have been able to determine, which are subject to infestation by 
the Mediterranean fruit-fly. 


Aberia caffra (Kei iii>i>le). 

Alligator pear. 

Almonds (V). 




Atropa belladona (nightshade). 

Avocado pear. 



Barbados gooseberry. 

Beans (string). 


( 'a rambola ( A verrhoa ) . 

Carica quercifolia; baby papaya. 

Carissa arduina. 

Cherimoya (Anona cherimolia) 


Chinese ink berry (Centrum Sp.). 

Chinese plum (Horonjiia emarginata) . 

Chrysophyllum cainito (star apple). 


Citrus fruits, all kinds. 

Citrus bu.rifotius. 

Citrus japonica (Kuniqnat). 

Cocoa-plum ( Chrysobalanus icaco). 

Coffee berry. 


Eugenia jambos (rose apple). 

Eugenia michelii (Surinam cherry). 



Grape (?). 


Guava (cultivated). 

Guava (strawberry). 

Guava (wild). 

Harpephyllum cuff rum (Kaffir plum). 

Kaffir plum (Harpephyllum ca-ffrum). 

Kel apple (Aberia caffra). 

" Kainani " seeds. 

Kumquat (Citrus japonica). 



Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica). 

Mammee-apples i Mammea americana), 



Maupi fruit. 

Mountain apple. 

Murraya erotica (mock orange). 


Nightshade (Atropa belladona). 

0/, unfit/ vulgaris (prickly pear). 

Opuntia tuna. 


Papaya (baby). 

Papaya (over-ripe). 

Passion flower (Passi flora ca^riilca). 

Passion fruit. 



Pepper, sweet. 

Pepi>er. green. 






Prickly pear (Opuntia vulgaris). 



Rose apple (Eugenia jamoos). 


Sapodilla (Achras sapota). 


Solanum capsicastrum (cherry sola 

mini ) . 
Star apple. 
Sugar apple. 

Surinam cherry (Eugenia michelii). 

1 The names in tins list arc recorded exactly as they appear in the literature con- 
sulted. Since tins literature is derived from various sources, chiefly from Hawaii. South 
Africa, and Australia, there is some repetition, owing to colloquialisms. 

I ill. Ml M I I l;i;\M \\ I i;i I I I I \ . 1 .'{ 

i ii i III8TOR1 INO ii \r.i i S. 

The life history and habits of the Mediterranean fruit fly have 
been very carefully investigated by different entomologists, par- 
ticularly l»\ Froggatt, French, Mally, and others. The following 

"iint of the insect by ('. W. Mally, enl ologisl for the Eastern 

Province, is quoted from his article <»n "The Fruil Fly," which ap- 
peared in the Agricultural Journal, Cape <>f < •» h .. I Hope, December, 

Aside from an occaalonaJ query, nothing is beard of the fruit fly mi the 
maggots are nbundanl In the apricots and peaches. These maggots come From 
deposited bj the adall fly. 

The eggs i in- female is provided with ;i sharp extensile ovipositor (the 
ii through which the eggs are laid) which enables her to pierce tin- frail 
and at the same time deposit the sin;iii glistening white eggs Just nnderneatb 
tlic skin -sometimes singly bnl usually a number together. They batch In a 
very short time, two to four days In midsummer. The ripeness of the fruit 
Beam s to Influence 1 1 1* - rapidity of their development, it is difficult to gel 
reliable Information on this point, for the mere fad thai a fly is seen to pierce 
the fruit is do proof that eggs are lefl al the same time. By < >i •«■'> •"— the fruit 
to make sun- that eggs were deposited thej are placed under unnatural condi- 
tions Different lots of eggs may be laid In the same puncture. I have ob- 
served females in the ad of oviposltlon and on Immediate examination tin* 

pulp was found to be discoloured and as high as ten clT'-'s present, in some of 

whirh the body Begments of the larva; were distinctly risible under the micro- 
scope. Although females may lake advantage of Slight injuries in the fruit 
they are by U0 means dependent upon them, and evidently prefer sound fruit 
in which to oviposit Numerous examinations of peaches, apples, lemons. 
oranges, and pompelmoes, show thai all eggs laid In fruil that Is too green 
perish as eggs, or, If they do hatch, the young larvae perish almost at once. 
This is an important point, for many fruit-growers take a hopeless view, 
believing thai the eggs may be laid in the fruil while it is still verj young 
and lie dormant until the pulp is sufficiently ripe to serve as toed for fhe 
larvae, it is of practical importance to those who enclose their trees with 

netting, for it reduces the time the netting must he exposed to the weather, 
l.ast March (1904) many apples were received showing a slight depression. In 

the center of which was a small black speck. < >n close examina t ion it was 

found to be due to the fruit fly having oviposited, bnl no development followed. 
The apples were still hard and the great mortality in the eggs, the shrivelled 
remains of which could still be found, was considered to be due to the fruil 
having been too green when oviposltlon took place. There was no trace of 

The larva' or "maggots" at once begin to feed on the pulp of the fruit. 
In apricots they make straight for the center, the pulp evidently lirst ripening 
round the pip In peaches and otlu r fruits they are more Inclined to work oul in 
different directions from the point of o\ (position, there being no distinct tendency - 
to penetrate towards the center. When fully developed, which usually requires 
a fortnight or three weeks, they leave the fruit, which has us a rule fallen 

era! days previously, and enter the ground, seldom going deeper than one 
inch, depending <>n the nature of the soil. Here they soon change t-> puparla, 

and remain for twelve days to three weeks, depending on the season When 
the transformation to adult is complete the fly pushes through the end of the 


puparium and works its way up through the soil. On reaching the surface t lie 
wings expand to full size, and in a short time the fly is ready to search for 
food. They are fund of the exuding juice of injured fruit. After matins; they 
lay eggs and die, thus marking the end of one generation and the beginning of 

the next. The eggs are not all deposited at once. Just how long the im- 
pregnated female lives and continues to lay eggs under natural conditions is 
uot known, but it is several weeks at least. 

The number of broods iu a year depends on circumstances of food supply and 
temperature. In midsummer, with abundant food, they develop more rapidly. 
one generation beiug complete in about twenty-eight days. Very ripe fruit 
seems to hasten their development. During the winter, at Grahametown [Cape 
Colony, S. Africa], they require two months or more to complete their trans- 
formations. The puparium stage of the midwinter brood, recorded below, 
required thirty-five days in the roaring-box in the office at the ordinary sea- 
sonal temperature. The broods overlap to such a great extent that it is im- 
possible to keep them separate in the field. 

With the approach of winter, the females are able to survive several months 
under natural conditions if no suitable fruit is available for egg deposition. 
The late peaches furnish the last grand feast, about the first of April. The 
adults of this generation emerge early in May and can survive till the citrus 
fruits are sulticiently ripe to serve as food for the larvae 

In this article Mr. Mally adds that the adults are keen feeders, 
taking readily to the juice exuding from the injured or decaying 
fruit, and some individuals have been found to feed on the honey- 
dew from certain scale insects. It is the consensus of opinion that 
the insect is carried from one locality to another by means of infested 
fruit. When once introduced in a locality, however, there will be a 
natural spread or dissemination of the species, though the rate of 
dissemination has not been ascertained. This will doubtless vary 
with the climate in question, particularly with the strength and 
direction of the winds. Migrations will be stimulated by an insuf- 
ficiency of food supply. 


The following description of the adult is quoted from Farmers' 
Bulletin 24, Department of Agriculture of New South Wales, by 
W. W. Froggatt : 

Size 4 to i) mm., about the size of an average house-fly, but looking somewhat 
smaller when dead, because the body shrinks up beneath the thorax. General 
color, ochreous yellow, lighter on the sides of thorax and basal joints of the 
antemuE. The eyes of the usual reddish purple tint, with a blackish blotch 
in the center of the forehead, from which spring two stout black bristles, a fine 
fringe of similar bristles round the hind margin of the head, with some coarser 
ones curving round in front of the head between the eyes. The thickened basal 
joints of the antennae pale yellow, the terminal segments black to the tips. The 
dorsal surface of the thorax convex, raised, and broadly rounded with the 
scutellum, the ground color creamy white to yellow, marbled with shiny black 
blotches forming an irregular mosaic pattern, the lighter portions clothed with 
\evy line white bristles. These light-colored bristles more lightly scattered 
over the dark areas, and the whole bearing large stout black bristles thickest 
on the black surface. 

Trie \in.rrn;i: wi \ v n:rn n.v. 1 .'» 

In many of the pictures of this lnaect the black areas are drawn as if they 
were projecting bosses or knobs, bul this Is Incorrect : the whole forma a regular 
rounded aurfa.ce. 

The \\in»'s are broad, semlopaque, with iii>' extreme l>;is.- blotched with ochre- 
mis or brown! ah yellow, with the real of the ims.-ii area curlonaly marked with 
black, forming dark lines of the r-: i • i i : » 1 1 1 1 -_r oervuree, with dark Linea and apota 
between; beyond this is ;i broad Irregular transverse ochreoua band, slightly 
lined with black, blotched al the extremity; another Bimllar shaped and col- 
ored blotch runs along Inside i>m no( In contact with the costal uervnre, also 
blotched towards the extremity In the angular space. Between these bands is 
another shorter black t >:t i ■< l running parallel with the lirsi transverse band. 

The oval abdomen is clothed <>n t i • « - upper Burface with fine, scattered black 
bristles, and has two rather broad transverse silvery white bands on the ius:ii 
half of the body. The male differs from ii><- female In being furnished with 
■ pair of stalked appendages standing out In front of the head In a line with 

the front margin of the eyes, ii stremltles <•( which filaments are produced 

in spatula te appendages, iib'k. finely Btrlated, and diamond shaped. 

The living By is an active little creature, running ;ii>->ut over the foliage or 
fruit on the trees, with its wings drooping down "n the sides of the body. 
When disturbed ii has :i short flight, Beldom flying 1 1 1« • i-»- than ;i few yards at 
Hie most, and ii often returns i" 1 1 1 * - same Bpot [See flg. l.| 


Considerable attention has been given to the investigation of possi- 
ble insed enemies of fruit-flies, though to date no effective natural 
check appears to have been found. Observations by Mr. George 
Compere, in Brazil, led bim t<> believe that this insect along with 
several other species <>t' fruit-flies was there kepi in check by a 
staphylinid beetle preying upon the maggots; and that it was also 
held in check by two Bpecies of [chneumon wasps. Both the para- 
sitic and predatory enemies were introduced into West Australia. 
Mr. Compere concludes hi- report ' upon the introduction work with 
the statement that with the establishment of these enemies in the 
Smte the pesl will be reduced to harmless numbers. 

'The importance of Mr. Compere's announcement led the Cape 
Government and the Natal Government to dispatch their entomolo- 
gists (Mr. Lounsbury and Mr. Fuller) to Brazil in search of these 
enemies, a- sel forth in the Agricultural Journal of the (ape of I 
Elope for January, 1905. In the October number of the same journal 
(1905) Mi - . Lounsbury presents hi- report upon the trip to Brazil, 
that of Mr. Fuller having been earlier given in the Natal Agricul- 
tural Journal, May 26, L906. 

Mr. Lounsbury reports the Mediterranean fruit-fly a- a very severe 
pesl in the State- of Sao Paulo. Rio de Janeiro, and probably else- 
where in Brazil where peaches are grown. No trace of the staphy- 
linid beetle could be found and it was presumed to he an enemy of 

1 .Tiuirn. Agr. Dept. W \ latral iDgust, 1904 


fruit-flies only under certain conditions. A small parasitic wasp 
(Opiellus trimaculatua Spin.) was reared from a related fruit-fly, 
Anastrepha frat&rcula, and maggots infesting small fruits showed a 
higher percentage of parasitism. Another small wasp was observed 
crawling over peaches and in one instance apparently ovipositing in 
the fruit and was suspected of being parasitic on fruit-flies. At- 
tempts were proposed to determine if the Opiellus parasite would 
also attack- the Mediterranean fruit-fly, though apparently without 
much hope, as Mr. Lounsbury concludes: 

Whilst there still appear these possibilities that fruit fly parasites exist in 
Brazil that might prove of some value against South African fruit flies, I no 
longer have any hope whatever thai these parasites may be capable of holding 
our fruit flies in sueh close subjection that artificial measures to save orchard 
fruits will become materially less necessary than they are at present. 

Mr. W. W. Froggatt. under the auspices of the Governments of 
New South Wales. Victoria, South Australia, and Queensland, spent 
a year (July. 1007. to July. 190S) in an investigation of entomolog- 
ical questions in foreign countries, and during his trip around the 
world particular attention was paid by him to the subject of insect 
control by parasitic and predatory insects; especially with reference 
to enemies of fruit flies (Report on Parasitic and Injurious Insects, 
Department of Agriculture. New South Wales, 1009). No reference 
is made in this report to the discovery of natural enemies of fruit- 
flies, and that no hope is felt in such work is shown by the following 
statement (p. G8) : 

I consider, as do nearly all leading entomologists who have given the matter 
of fruit flies any attention, that it is very improbable that any internal para- 
site will ever make any impression on this pest in the case of commercial 
fruit, such as oranges, peaches, etc In all cases where parasites have been 
bred it has been from small, wild, or hard-fleshed fruits, and though parasites 
may be quite numerous among some of the wild fruits, yet they are not able to 
injure the larva* in large fruits. 

In Mexico an ichneumonid parasite infests the Morelos orange 
worm (Trypeta ludens Loew). namely. GratospUa rudibunda Say. 
though, as stated by Mr. Isaacs, not over from 10 to 15 per cent are 
parasitized. Prof. A. Berlese records Hexamerocera brasiliensis 
Ashm. MS. from the Mediterranean fruit-fly. and its use has been 
advocated by Von Ihering against Trypeta ludens. 


The governments of certain countries have put in force regulations 
for the enforced control of fruit-flies, and in each instance the prin- 
ciple followed has been the inspection of orchards and cleaning up 
and destruction of all fallen fruits. This seems to be the plan 
principally recommended and relied upon for the control of this in- 

I 111. \n hi I i i:i:\\i w I i:i IT-FLY. IT 

ilthough as later mentioned other methods have been tried with 
more hi- less success. 

In Mexico a grant of money \\a- obtained for cleaning up orange 
orchards infested with the so-called orange worm {Trypeta ludens), 
and tin' following rules were issued by the Comision de Parasi- 
tologfa Agricola in whose hands the work was placed. 

(it Gather each day all mangoes, lemons, and oranges which may Lave 
fallen from the trees, and deposit them in a clean corner ol the orchard. 

(2) Destroy all trull so accumulated at leasl once a week. 

['■',i n is preferable n> destroy the fruit by burning, inn u may be disposed 
of by burial, and when burled it should be covered with at least 60 centi- 
meters (about li» Inches) of soiL 

( 1 1 If i he same worm exists in the guava, this frull should also be destroyed 
In the same manner. 

Quarantine measures against oranges from Mexico have been in 
force for Some years in California. 

In Bermuda an act came into force in 1907 to improve fruit- 
growing conditions on the island by the suppression of the Mediter- 
ranean fruit-fly, ami the work of eradication was placed in the hands 
of the board of agriculture. Concerning the scope and character of 
the work undertaken. Mr. Harris -late-: 

The genera] plan lias been i" collect and destroy all the mature fruits of all 

kinds known to he punctured throughout the country; and in such cases, where 

bearing large numbers of small fruit are inn numerous, about 90 per cenl 

haw been pruned hark to prevent their producing frull during the next fruit- 

mg season; by doing this it is possible to collect all the fruits produced bj the 

trees that were left unpinned last season. 

The fruits were collected in sacks, weighted by Inserting a big stone before 

Closing the bttg, and thrown into the sea. In a few instances it proved more 

convenient to burn <>r boil the fruits. 

The work was begun as soon as possible after i he "Act" came into force. 
Ten sets of tools were purchased, and an inspector was appointed for each of 

the nine parishes, and the Inspectors were supplied with laborers as necessity 

No regulations appear to lie ill force in Mediterranean countries 
for tic control of this or other fruit-flies, though a large reward is 
offered by the Italian Government for a remedy for the nearly re- 
lated specie.-, the olive fly (Dacus olea Rossi). \ ( » reference has 
been noted bearing on Legislation along this line in Australia or in 
Cape Colony. 

The regulation promulgated by the Hawaiian authorities to pre- 
vent the distribution of the insect from Oahu to other islands and 
the quarantine established by California against Hawaiian fruit have 

already keen noted. 

In regions where the pe-t i- well established, a.- in Australia and 
South Africa, much attention has keen given to devising effective 
remedies other than the collection and destruction of fallen fruit. 
A plan recommended by Lounsbury in l s '- ,s was the covering of 


trees with netting, and in the case of small to medium-sized trees 
the method was thought to be practical. Full directions were given 
for the employment of netting, and it was stated: 

The measure will undoubtedly be of great value to parties growing cboiee 
varieties in and about our villages where, because of laxity on the part of 
neighbors, the destruction of all maggot-infested fruit on oue"s place is un- 
availing as a preventive from further attack. 

This plan, apparently, has not been followed to any great extent. 

Professor Antonio Berlese, of Florence. Italy, began in 1903 teste 
of a poisoned bait against the olive fly (Dacun dice-). The poisoned 
liquid was sprayed over the trees to destroy the adults which feed 
freely on available fruit juices and other sweetish substances. This 
work, commenced in 1903, was continued during 11)05 and 1000. The 
material used consisted of honey 31 per cent, molasses 65 per cent, 
glycerine 2 per cent, and arsenite of potash 2 per cent. Prof. Berlese 
states : 

I have carried on the above experiments on 10,000 trees in three different 
localities, and have obtained absolute results, having succeeded in keeping 
sound, until they were ripe, all the olives on the trees which had been treated. 
This I did, although in the surrounding plantations all the olives were maggot- 
eaten and destroyed as early as September. Since the mixture is very soluble, 
the autumnal rains, which fall generally a little before the gathering of the 
fruit, are sufficient to wash off the poisoned substance, which was sprayed on 
to the olives. When, however, copious rains do not occur, it is necessary, before 
sending the olives to the press, to wash them in water in order to prevent any 
risk of poisoning. 

In the Agricultural Journal. Cape of Good Hope, for December, 
1904, Mr. C. W. Mally reports upon experiments, made quite inde- 
pendently of those of Prof. Berlese, in the destruction of the Mediter- 
ranean fruit-flies by a poisoned-bait spray, used with good results 
in his rearing cages. The bait consisted of a solution of 5 gallons of 
treacle (molasses). 1 pound of arsenate of lead, and 25 gallons of 
water. This poisoned bait was further tried out by Mally and others 
during several succeeding seasons, and in 1909 was put to practical 
field tests. Concerning the experiment Mr. Mally states: 

Result*.— While the bait was expected to make a good showing in regard to 
the late varieties of fruit, its prompt effect in almost completely stopping the 
deposition of eggs in the fruit already ripening came as an agreeable surprise. 
The late maturing portion of the fruit on the trees, showing infestation' to the 
extent of 50 per cent of the fruit in the proper stage of ripeness for the flies 
when the baiting began, came to maturity practically free from maggots— less 
than 1 per cent being infested. The fruit on all the late varieties of treated 
trees ripened perfectly, and was sold on the market and guaranteed free from 
maggots. No complaints of infestation were received at any time. On the 
control trees the situation was just the reverse, almost every ripe fruit being 
infested by maggots ranging from newly hatched to fully developed. Puparia 
were present under some of the decaying peaches, and there were numerous flies 
flitting about the trees. 

I'll I. \l I hi I I 1:1; \ M \ s I 1:1 I I I in . 1 U 

The only explanation seems to be thai tin- bait, being evenly distributed over 
the trees, prlcklj pears, buab, etc., n round the orchard, w »lly available 

thai practically all of the fllee present during any one day found ii very quickly, 
and fed on it i" their destruction li Bbould i"' stated bere that, even i Ij- ►< i — 1 1 

the flies do ii"i "drop dead" Inn I lately after feeding on the bait the poison 

begins to bake effecl In a verj sborl time, and completes their destruction In 
aboul 24 hours. Bul < 1 1 1 1- i n _r this time the flies, as Indicated by specimens kepi 
under observation In cages, nre to think of depositing i--':_'s The same 

fate evidently awaited 1 1 1» - fresh (Ilea as they emerged from the ground. The 
tad thai thej must feed for n aumber of days before the eggs are sufficiently 
mature i<> be dejwslted gives ample time for them to And the bait. 

it' any of the Mies thai emerged from the mass ><( Infested fruit under the 
control trees found their way to the treated orchard thej musl have found the 
ball mi once on arrival and died without depositing eggs. This Bhows thai 
either the flies ordinarily do not travel over n space of WO yards or else t ln-y 
tind the ball so quickly thai there Is nothing t" fear from them This ■■>\><> has 
an important bearing on the question of contamination coming from neglected 
orchards, for it indicates thai the progressive frull grower will reap the full 
benefit of bis care In treating his trees, even though hi* neighbor's orchard, or 
the native hush near by, is full of filea 

Tm these test- in 1909 the formula used was sugar 3 pounds, arsenate 
of lead 1 ounces, water 5 gallons. Rains interfere much with the 
use of tin 1 spray and applications musl be repeated to maintain it 
on the trees. A tt>t;il of II applications was made From January 1~> 
to March 20, the expense for material being aboul x cents per tree. 
The poisoned-bail method of controlling this and other fruit flies 
would appear entirely feasible, especially in more or less arid regions, 
where the spray would not be washed off by ruin-. On the other 
hand, the application of the spray to fruit jusi as it is approaching 
maturity might prove objectionable. The poisoned-bait method is 
already being tested in the United States for the control of the apple 
maggot. The results of this work. 30 far as the writer is aware, have 
not been indicated. 

Considerable interest was aroused in the so-called paraffin remedy, 
first developed in Wesl Australia, which consists in trapping the 
adult flies with kerosene oil. The oil is said to be particularly at- 
tractive to flies, and the vessels containing kerosene are placed in the 
forks of the tree and attract them to their death in considerable num- 
bers. It ha- been found, however, that a large proportion of the 

insects thus trapped are male-, and practical tests of the method by 

Lounsbury showed that little, if any. protection to the fruit resulted. 



1817. Latbeille, M. — Lea Tephrites. <CDvier'a Regne Animal, vol. 3, p. <>47. 

•• Ic-s colons (ic I'lele-de-France ne peuvent presque jms, d'aprea des obser- 
vations que m'a communiqueea M. Cattoire, obtenlr dea citrons s:iins ci on 
parfaite maturity, a raison de ('extreme multipllcitd d*un d.vptero dn menu 
Bousgenre qui y depose aes oeufs." 

1824 (1826). Wiedemann, ('. R. — Analecta entomologica. Kiii.-c, p. 55, do. 124. 
Trypeta capitata, original description. 

1829. Maimav, W. S. — Notice of Ceratitis citriperda, an insect very destructive 

to orange. <Zool. Journ., vol. 4, pp. 475-482, pL 15. 

Description and colored plate. Character and amount of injury to oranges. 

1S30. Wiedemann, ('. R. — Aussereuropaische zweifliigelige Inseeten, Zweiter 
Theil, i). 496. 

Trypeta capitata, description and brief note. 

1830. Beneken, C. — Entomological notices. <Zool. Journ., vol "». pp. 198-^199. 

Brief notice, 
is:;.". Macquabt, J. — Histoire aaturelle dea insectes. Dipteres, Tome 2. p. 4.~4. 
Petalophora capitata, brief description. 

1842. Uremic, F. De. — Note sur le genre Ceratitis de Macleay. <Ann. Sue. 

Ent. de France, vol. 11, pp. 183-190, pi. 7. figs. 1-.",. 
Description us Ceratitis hispanica. 

1843. Macquabt, J. — Dipterea exotiques nouveaux on peu connus, 3rd subdi- 



1843. Meneville, Gt/ebin. — Ceratitis capitata. <Revue Zoologique, vol. <>. par 
la See. Cuvierienna, pp. 198-199. 


1848. Westwood, .1. D. — The orange fly. <Gard: Chron., p. (*><i4. 3 rigs. 

Account of Ceratitis capitata and character of injury. 
1859. Gotjbeau, Cot. — Note sur la Ceratitis hispanica vivant dans les oranges. 
<Ann. Soc. Ent. de France (3), vol. 7. Bui., pp. 43-45. 
Observations on rearing insect from orange. 
lsi>2. Loew, II. — Die europaiachen Bohrfliegeu, Wien., p. 323, pi. 20, fig. 1. 

Brief note with synonyms of Coat it Ik capitata. 
1S<;4. Schinek, R. — Die Fliegen, Fauna Austriaca, vol. 2. AYien, Gerold, pp. 173- 

Description and synonymic notes. 
187<». Rondani, C. — Ortalidinse italicae, collects, distinct* et in ordinem dis- 
positse. <F.ull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 2. p. 29. 
Description of Petalophora hispanica. 
1871. Labouxbene, A. — Note sur les domages causes par la Ceratitis hispanica 
mix fruits des orangers dans dos possessions d'Algeria. <Ann. Soc. 
Ent. France (5), vol. 1. pp. 43!t— 14.°.. 
Destructive to oranges. 
1882. Alfonso, Fe Bonafede C— Sulla innocuita delle api, e i danni dell' 
Halterophora capitata in Palermo. <Glorn. Com. Agr. Palermo, n. 1. 
p. 13. 

1882. Mixa-Palumbo, F. — I.a mosca delle arance. Tip. Michele Amenta, Palermo. 

1883. Bbatjee, F. — Die Zweifliigler des Kaiserliehen Museums zd Wien III. 

<Sysleniatische Studien auf Grundlage der Dipteren l.arven. etc., 
vol. 47. p 89. 
Partial bibliography. 

rill. Ml l>l I I l;i; \ M \\ I 1:1 I I i \.\ . _ I 

lssi ii.ii\ si.m\. C El Mai ■ •;' Diptern occurring on Madeira Island. 

<En( Mo Mag . vol. 21, p 34, July, l >-- 1 

18S5 I; r, \ < ■ atiti$ capllata. • Berl. Knl Zeltscbr., vol 20, p 132 

lssT. I'i HZi ,0 Studl botunlcl Bugll agruml e Bulle plnnte nfflnl. ■ Vnn. Agr. 

Mlnestero, p it 
1889. Ormebod, Miss E \ InJurlouB Farm and Frnll Insects of South Afrlcii, 

pp. r.> 00, Bg, 22, 
1880. Riley, C V., and How aid, L. A. peacl pest In Bermuda. • Ins. life, 

vol 3, Vugnst, pp •". s, •_' I 

i: ared from peaches received from Bermuda. 

1880. Riley, <' v. and Howard, l. <> Vddltlonal note on Cera tit is ca pit at a. 

<Ins. I. ii'c. vol. •".. September, pp. s " x i 
1800. Riley, C \ . and Howahd, l. O. The Bermuda peach maggot miuI orange 
rust. • lii—- Life, vol. 3, November, pp. 120 121. 
I'm rai ' from correspond 
1800. Henslo l 'bronlcle, p. 855. 

1 1 ri.-f account 

1881. Riley, C \ Reitort of the Entomologist. ■ Ann Repl Dept Agr., 1890, 

pp. 255 - _'"'7 

Injuries tn peaches In Bermuda discussed 

1892. Taouafebbo, V Mediterranean Sat., vol. 6, no. 12, May, pp. IT:: IT.",. 

and remedies. 

Riley, C v., and Howard, i. O. The orange frnll tly In Malta. <Ins. 

Life, vol. ■". April, p. 264. 

Extract from correspondence relative to Injuries In Malta by CeratitU 
citripcriin IdacLeaj 

van deb Wulp, r M. Catalog! f the destructive Dlptern from Southern 

Asia. The Hague, p. 189. iiiiiu. Ci mii The frull By. <Journ. Bur. Alt. \\ . Australia, 
February, p. 1 1 it 
Life history, description, and reme 
1887. lii 1 1 k. Claude The frnll By. <Journ. Bur. Agr \\ Australia, 
March, Bg. 10. pp. 1 185 1 186. 
Lite history and remedies 
1887 I'uvii.N. II The West Australian frull fly. <Journ. Bnr Agr. W. 
Australia, March, p. 1 186. 
and bibliography. 
1887 LotmsBUBY, C. P. Proceedings of the Ninth Animal Meeting "f Hip 
Association of Economic Entomologists. ■ r s Dept. Agr., Dtr. 
Km.. Bul. 9, n. --. p 36 
Damage to fruit In South Afi 
1886 Howard, L. <> Danger of Importing Insect pests. < Yearbook U. 8. 
Dept. Agr., 1897, p. 548, Bg. .".I 
Danger • >( Importation d 
i.i \. \ \| Notes "ti the Mediterranean frull fly and Queensland fruit 
By. <Bul. Dept. Alt. Tasmania, pp. 6, pi. 1. 
Manner •<( attack of fruit and remedies given. 
I s '. 1 '.' I'koi.i. m i. \v. \v. N'cit.- on fruit-maggot flies with descriptio 

species \-i ' . / New South Wales, vol. l". no. is, pp. 197 .""i. 

,,l 3 

Pri.-f account and description. 


1899. Preliminary report of the siate Board of Horticulture, California, 1897-08, 
Sacramento, p. 68, l fig. 

1899. Kikk, T. W. — Fruit flies. <New Zealand Dept. Agr., Report 1899, pp. 
232-234. figs. 7. 

189!). Kihk, T. W.— Fruit flies. <Xew Zealand Dept Agr. Leaflet for Gar- 
deners and Fruit Growers, no. 35, pp. 3, figs. 8. 

1S99. Lounsbury, ('. 1'.— Report of the Govt. Ent. for 1899, <Dept. Agr. Cape 
Good Hope. pp. 35-36. 
Insect stated to be less prevalent some years than others. 

1899. Beblese, A.— I.a mosca della arance. <Boll..29, Lab. Ent. Agr. Portlci, 

pp. 1-7. 

1900. Le Ceratitis capitata aux environs de Paris. <Rev. Bncyclop. Larouase, 

aim. 10, p. 3G9. 
19(10. Hereeba, A. L. — Classification y biologia del gusano. <Bol. <le Agr. 
Mineria e Industrias, No. 7-9, pp. 55-57. 
19(H). Beblese, A. — Insetti nocivi agli alberi da frutto ed all a vite, I'ortici, p. 

62, fig. 22. 
1900. Leonakdi, G.— Gli insetti nocivi ( Xai>oll), p. 284, figs. 148-150. 

Biological notes and remedies. 
1900. Giard, A. — Sur l'existence de Ceratitis capitata aux environs de Paris. 
<Conipt. Rend. Acad. Sci., Paris, tome 131. pp. 436-438. 
Notes on outbreak of insect at Courbevoie, near Paris. 

1900. Borg, J. — Orange culture and diseases. <Bul. Pol. Dept Jamaica, n. s. 7. 

no. 9, p. 136. 

1901. Ribaga, C. — Insetti nocivi all olivo ed agli agruuni. I'ortici. Stab, \esu- 

viano, p. 35. figs. 19-30. 
1901. Froggatt, W. W. — Entomological work and notes for 1910. <Agr. Gaz. 
N. S. Wales, vol. 12, no. 7. pp. 794-805 (Separate, p. 12). 

1903. Craw, A. — Fruit flies and their exclusion. <Cal. Fruit Grower, vol. 28, 
July 18. p. 4. 

1903. Buchanan, G. — Fruit fly. <Journ. Dept. Agr. W. Australia, February. 

pp. 109-110. 

1904. Mally, C. W. — The fruit fly. <Agr. Journ. Cape (mod Hope, vol. 25. 

no. C. pp. (;47-C>02, 1 pi.. (> figs. 

Life history, food plants, food habits, parasites, remedies, etc. 

1904. Compere, G. — The introduction of the fruit fly parasite. <Journ. Dept. 
Agr. W. Australia, vol. 10, no. 2. pp. 6S-72. 

1904. Cartwrigiit, W. — Notes on two insects. <Journ. Khediv. Agr. Soc. and 
School Agr., vol. 6, no. 1. pp. 17-19. 

1904. Mally, C. \V., and Lounsbury. C. P. — Report of the Government entomol- 
ogist for the half year ending June 30, 1904. <Cape Good Hope 
Dept. Agr., Rept. Govt Ent.. 1904. p. 31. 

1904. Johnson, C. W. — A revised list of the Diptera of Bermuda. <Psyche, 

vol. 11, p. 79. 

1905. Lounsbury-, C. P. — Natural enemies of the fruit fly. <Agr. Journ. Cape 

Good Hope, vol. 20. no. 1, pp. S4-87. 
1905. Hamkl. A.- The biology of Ceratitis capitata. <Bol. Agr. (Sao Paulo), 
ser.. no. 8, pp. 352-354. 
Biological notes. 

Tin; mi hi I BREAK! \N l 1:1 l I 11 v. 28 

1905. I'.mum:, 'I'ii. (Catalog der palaarktlschen Diptera, Band i\ Budapest, 

p. ill. 

1906, John, i '. CeroUtto oapitata in Copland. • Boo. Km., vol. 20, p. 58. 

r.Mi;.. n-i-.i m , r p Natural enemies of the frull By. • a-i- Journ. Cape 
• i Hope, rol. 27, no. ::. pp. 300 310; no. I. pp. 157 WO 
Maori n» >t greatly effected bj natnial enemies in BrasU. 
1906 Bkmjcse, a. a probably effective method of destroying CeratUia copitata 
nnd Rhagoletit cenui, <Redla, rol. •"•. no. ■_'. pp. 386 3S.N) 
Suggests using honey, molasses, glycerine, and u arsenics]. 
ilta of testa against olive By. 

[hebino, von. As moscas das fructas e sua destrnlcao. s. Panlo, Secre- 
inii.i da .V _rii . 1 1 1 1 ii ri . p. I. i" _'. 
1006. iIimi'm, A.— Contrlbnicao ;i Blologia do Ceratitit capitata. <Bol. da 
Agric do Estado de 8. Paulo (6), vol. 8, p. 352. 
Biological aoti 

1906. Aldbich, J. M. — A catalogue of North a rlcan Diptera. Washington, 

Smithsonian Institution, p. 801. 

Not known In I'nlt.d States bnl listed because of economic Importance.;. Him pel, a. <> blcho dos fructos e seus parasltas, <Bol. da Agr. do 
Estado de s. Paulo (7), p. 213. 

1906. Hi \irw., A. 'I'll.' frull fly ami Its parasites. <Bol. Agr. i Sao Paulo) 

7 --rr.. do. •">. pp 206 21 1. 

Parasites not very effective In controlling trnll flj in Babla. 
1906 Qiahd, A. — 'l'lii- spread <<( the trull fly in the neighborhood of Paris 
<Compt Rend. Acad. Set., Paris, vol. 1 I"., no. 8, pp. 353 354. 
Damage in the neighborhood of Paris described. 

1907. Qi inn. <;. Tin' frull maggot fly pests. <Journ. Dept Alt. South Aus- 

tralia, vol. lu. do. II. pp. Tnl -Tin. flga 6 
Habits and remedies. 

1907. Lounshubt, C. l'. The frull fly. <Agr. Journ. Cape <; l Hope, vol. '!1. 

no. _!. pp. 186, IsT. 
1907. Kii;k. T. W. — Australian fruit fly. < New Zeal. Ann. Kept Dept Alt.. 

PP. 190 200, :: flga. 
p.nit. lia Ni it. c -The Mediterranean frull fly. <Journ. Agr., Victoria, May, 
pp. 801 ::<>t. pi. 1. flga ft 
i \ p.- The Insect pests of peacb hits. <Prog. Agr. el \'it. vol. 48, 
no. 49, pp. 680, 681. 

ilogical and economic notes 

v.xit. LornsBtTBT, «'. P.- Report of the Governmenl Entomologist for 
<Rept Govt Knt.. tape Good Hope, p 56. 
Guhmki, W. B. — Naraia fruit fly and codling motb control experiment 
<Agr. Gas N. S. Wales, vol. 19, no. T. pp. .".si .~,sp 
Methods of control. 
P.kis \i\vmv\. I.. J. i'li,. fruit fly parasite. <Journ. Dept Alt. W. Aus- 
tralia, vol. IT. no. 1. pp. 561 ■".''.-"•. 1" flga 
a chaldd parasite dlscnssed 

1908 Uallt, c. W.— Paraffin remedy versus poisoned bait for the fruit fly. 
<Agr. Journ Cape Good Hope. vol. .",'J. no. a. pp. 600 ''.II. 
Extensive experiments for control. 


1908. Becheb, Tii. — Dipteren der kana rise-hen Inseln and der [nsel Madeira. 
Olitth. Zool. Mus, Berlin, voL 4, p. i:;o. 

1908. Froggatt, W. W.— Australian Insects. Sydney, p. 308. 

1908. Kikk. T. W.— Dept of Agr. Now Zealand. Ann. Kept.. 1908, p. los. 

1908. Gurnet, Wm. B. — Gosford Narara fruit fly and codling moth control ex- 
periment <Agr. Gazette of N. S. Wales. July. 

1908. Howard, C. W. — Report of the Entomologist <Transvaal Dept. Alt.. 

Ann. Kept., 1908, p. 194. 
Brief note. 

1909. Bezzi, M. — The species belonging to the genera Ceratitis, Anastrepha and 

Dacus. <BoL Lab. Zool. (Jen. e Alt. R. Scuola Sup. Alt. Portici, 
vol. 3, pp. 27G, 277. 

ItMi'.i. Froggatt, W. W. — Notes on fruit Hies. <Rept. Estac. Cent. Agron. 

i Cuba ) : English Ed. (1909), pt 2, pp. 12o. 121. 
1909. Kikk, T. W. — Fruit flies. <New Zeal. Dept. Alt.. Div. Biol., BuL 22, 

pp. 7-17, figs. 3. 
1909. [iOtJNSBtTRY, C. P. — Report of the Government Entomologist for 3909. 

<Kept. Govt. Knt. Cape Good Hope, p. 88. 

Promising remedy — arsenate lead 2 pounds, sugar L'.~> pounds, water 40 


1909. Froggatt, W. W. — Fruit flies. < Dept. Agr. N. S. Wales. Fanners' Bui. 
24. pp. 37-44. fig. IS. pi. 2. 

General account, habits, distribution, etc. 
1909. Froggatt, W. W. — The Mediterranean fruit fly. <Dept Agr. N. S. Wales: 
Kept, on Parasitic and Injurious insects 1907-1908, pp. 100-10.1 (also 
p. 52), pis. 5, 8. 

General account, habits, distribution, etc. 
1909., C. W. — Fruit fly remedy. <Dept Agr. s. Afr. Cape Good Hope, 
no. 34, 1909, pp. 620-633, 1 fig., 1 pi. 
Report on spraying with poisoned bait. 
1909. French, C. — Fruit flies. <Handbook of the destructive insects of Vic- 
toria, pt. 4. pp. 29-36. 

1909. Theobald, F. V. — Mediterranean Fruit Fly. <Iusect pests of fruit, p. 493. 

1910. Graham, W. M. — On West Africa Trypetidae. <Bul. Knt. Research, 1, 

no. 3, p. 102. 
1910. Destructive insects and pests order. < Bd. Agr. and Fisheries (London). 

Intel. Div., Ann. Rept Proc. 1909-1910. p. 27. 
1910. Gowdet, C. O.— Report of the Government Entomologist for 1!K)9-1910. 

< Report Govt. Knt. Uganda, pp. 5, 6. 
Injury to coffee noted. 
1910. Froggatt, W. W. — Notes on fruit flies with description of new species. 

<Proc Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, vol. 35, pt. 4. pp. 862-872. 
1910. Gxjrney, W. B. — Fruit flies and other insects attacking cultivated and 

wild fruits in New South Wales. <Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales, vol. 21. 

no. 5, pp. 423-120, 1 tig. 
1910. Ehrhorn, E. M. — Report of the Superintendent of Entomology. <IIa- 

waiian Forester and Agriculturist, vol. 7. no. 11, pp. 336-338. 

Occurrence in Hawaii announced. 
1910. M \.(ti:i.i.i. Dr. G. — Mosca Delia Arance (Ceratitis capitata). <Bol. del 
Lab. di Zool. generate Agr. della R. Scuola Superiore d'Agr. in Portici. 
PP. 8, l fig. 

Biologic Holes 

Till; Ml hi I I l:l: \ \ I \ \ I I; I I I 1 I \ . -J.', 

l'.uo. EtBKBORir, B II Report of the Superintendent of Bntomologj i"i 
L909 1010. • Blen Report Bd Comr. Agr and Forestry, Hawaii, pp. 
886 888. 

Balsa fur prevention of distribution siren 

1010, Cci\ini;i. G. Fruit Blea 38th Frail Growers' Convention of Cal., 1910, 

pp. km; 109 

Habits, ( etc. 

1811. Bhbhobr, E \i Report of the Superintendent of Entomology. <lln- 

wallan Bd. Agr. and Forestry, Rent Dlv. Ent for Blen. period ending 
December, 1910, pp. 138 142, pla. 28, :.".> 

on occurrence In Hawaii and rules for prevent ion of distribution 

1011. I'.kmimb, ii. l: \ frail il\ menace. < Cal. State Comm. Hort. (Clrc.l. 

pp. .". 7. •_' |>N. 
Daagn of Introduction Into California disco 
1SU. Cashes, ES. K. — Investigations covering the "Mediterranean frail By" 
iiiiis capitata) in the Hawaiian Islands. <Mo. Bui. Cal. State 
Comm. Hort., December, 1911, pp. •"» 13. 
Beporl of investigations in Hawaii 

1812, Cabites, EL K. — Fortieth Report of the California Frail Growers' < "ii 


1912, Uiim \m». ii. ,\ The frail fly menace and preventive asures. <Mo. 

Bnl Cal. State Comm. Hort, April, 1912, pp. 156 159. 
Beporl of observatloni In Hawaii. 
ISIS, Giitabd, w. M. Report on rum ti.\ control. <Hawallnn Forester and 
Alt., vol. '•>. no. 1. pp. 28 31. 

Report on control work In Hawaii ami list of fruits from which insert has 

beon reared. 
ISIS, Gnn u;i>. \v. m. Frail fly control. <HawaIlan Forester :in<l \j.y . vol. 9, 
no. 4. pp. 10.8 1 1 1 

Beporl on eradication and control work under way In Hawaii. 

Approved : 

James Wilson, 

Si i n tin ij of . [ffri< ultvtt . 

Washington, D. ('.. Jxm 11. 1912. 

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